Schwartz-Bartter syndrome (SIADH) Treatment, Drugs, Causes, Symptoms, and Diagnosis

The Schwartz-Bartter syndrome (SIADH) is a group of rare conditions that affect the functionality of the kidneys. Schwartz-Bartter syndrome affects the body when the level of sodium in the blood goes below the normal levels. Drinking too much water during endurance sports may cause the sodium in your body to become diluted. When this happens, the water levels in your body rise and the cells begin to swell. The swelling can trigger an onset of other conditions ranging from mild to life-threatening.

Schwartz-Bartter syndrome (SIADH) Drugs

  • Demeclocycline ; Note that Demeclocycline may cause side effects such as skin photosensitivity and nephrotoxicity
  • Urea ; Oral daily digestion of Urea has shown positive results in treating underlying conditions such as melanosis
  • Conivaptan ; Conivaptan may help treat adrenal insufficiency and pulmonary disorders for hospitalized patients
  • Tolvaptan – Tolvaptan is indicated due to its ability to raise the levels of serum sodium in patients with Schwartz-Bartter syndrome

Schwartz-Bartter syndrome (SIADH) Symptoms

The symptoms of Schwartz-Bartter syndrome may vary depending on the cause. Also, different people may exhibit varying symptoms based on the body’s ability to tolerate the intensity of the condition. The most common symptoms of Schwartz-Bartter syndrome include:

  • Anorexia
  • Nausea
  • Muscle aches
  • Generalized weakness of the muscles
  • Myoclonus
  • Hyperreflexia
  • Pathological reflexes
  • Tremore
  • Asterixis
  • Cheyne-Stokes respiration
  • Dysarthria
  • Lethargy
  • Confusion
  • Delirium
  • Seizure
  • Coma mostly caused by cerebral edema

If you have a medical condition that increases your risk of Schwartz-Bartter syndrome, or are exposed to risk factors such as engaging in high-intensity sport, you should consider visiting a doctor. Just like most conditions, early diagnosis may help reduce fatalities.

Schwartz-Bartter syndrome (SIADH) Causes

The Schwartz-Bartter syndrome can be caused by a host of condition and lifestyle factors. Some of the common Schwartz-Bartter syndrome causes include:

  • Using certain medication such as diuretics, painkillers or antidepressants that can make you urinate or perspire more. Ecstasy is also believed to cause SIADH
  • Heart, kidney and liver problems
  • Cancers such as lung, prostate or stomach cancers
  • Pulmonary infection such as pneumonia, asthma or cystic fibrosis
  • Transient causes such as endurance exercise or general anesthesia
  • Hereditary causes
  • Infection to the central nervous system
  • Massive bleeding or subarachnoid hemorrhage
  • Guillain-Barre syndrome
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Sarcomas
  • Drinking too much water after or during endurance sport

Schwartz-Bartter syndrome (SIADH) Diagnosis

Diagnosing Schwartz-Bartter syndrome involves a number of physical examinations. However, due the fact that Schwartz-Bartter syndrome can be caused by many underlying conditions, physical examination alone may not be enough. Some tests may be used in a Schwartz-Bartter syndrome diagnosis, including the following:

  • Low blood urea nitrogen
  • Normal serum creatinine
  • Low uric acid
  • Normal acid base
  • Normal adrenal, thyroid function
  • Urine sodium concentration with normal dietary salt intake

Imaging studies that may be considered include:

  • Chest radiography to establish if there is any underlying pulmonary cause of Schwartz-Bartter syndrome
  • Computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of the head to see if there is a central nervous disorder that may cause SIADH

Schwartz-Bartter syndrome (SIADH) Treatment

Schwartz-Bartter syndrome treatment primarily aims at treating any underlying causes. Treating the syndrome may also involve any of the following procedures depending on the acuteness of the condition and response to treatment.

  • Restricting fluid intake to a maximum of 1,800 mL per day. This is done to increase serum sodium and decrease total body water.
  • In the case of a more severe condition, more intensive treatment options may be sought. The options include an intravenous sodium solution to increase the levels of sodium in your blood. You may also take medications to reduce the intensity of the symptoms associated with Schwartz-Bartter syndrome such as nausea, headaches, and seizures.