Pulmonary embolism is an obstruction in one of several pulmonary veins inside the lungs. Generally, pulmonary embolism is triggered by thrombus (blood clots) which stream to the lungs from the lower limbs (legs) or, seldom, other body arts (deep vein thrombosis). Although anyone can have pulmonary embolism and acquire DVT (deep vein thrombosis) factors such as immobility and surgery maximize your risk.
pulmonary embolism Drugs
pulmonary embolism Symptoms
Pulmonary embolism symptoms may vary greatly, based on how much of the lung is engaged, the clots size and the overall health – particularly the absence or presence of underlying heart disease or lung disease. Typical signs and symptoms consist of:
- Breath or shortness. This symptom generally appears abruptly and always becomes worse with physical exertion.
- Chest pains. You may feel like you are having a cardiac arrest. The discomfort may get worse when you breathe hard, cough, bend or eat. The pains will get even worse with workouts but won’t disappear when you rest.
- The cough might produce bloody/blood streaked sputum
pulmonary embolism Causes
Pulmonary embolism happens when a heap of material, usually a blood clot, becomes wedged inside an artery in the lungs. Such blood clots commonly begin within the deep veins of legs, but they may also emanate from other sections of the body. This situation is called DVT (deep vein thrombosis). Occasionally, elements besides blood clots can build blockages inside the blood vessels in their lungs. Instances include:
- Portion of a tumor
- Fat from inside the marrow of a cracked long bone
- Air bubbles
pulmonary embolism Diagnosis
Pulmonary embolism is usually hard to diagnose, particularly in individuals who have underlying lung or heart disease. For this reason, your physician may order a sequence of tests to aid in finding the trigger of your symptoms. The doctor may order a number of the following tests. Blood test
- Your physician may request a blood examination test for the clot-dissolving compound D (dimer) in your blood. Substantial amounts may point to an increased probability of blood clots
- This non-invasive exam exhibits images of the lungs and heart on film. Although X-rays can’t locate pulmonary embolism, they can exclude conditions that imitate the disease
pulmonary embolism Treatment
Treatment for Hodgkin’s disease depends on the stage of the disease. The most common treatment options are radiation, chemotherapy, and stem cell transplant. In patients with early-stage Hodgkin’s lymphoma, chemotherapy is often combined with radiation therapy. Chemotherapy is a drug treatment that uses medications that kill cancer cells. These drugs may be administered orally in pill form or intravenously through a vein in your arm, depending on the specific medication. Radiation therapy involves using high-energy rays, such as X-rays, which kill cancer cells. For classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma as well as for early-stage lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin’s lymphoma, radiation therapy can be ordered alone. Stem cell transplant is a replacement of the diseased bone marrow with healthy stem cells, which helps to build new bone marrow. A stem cell transplant is also used if your body doesn’t respond to chemotherapy or radiation therapy or when Hodgkin’s lymphoma returns after treatment.