Neurophysiology is a medical science that deals with the regular functionality of the central and peripheral nervous system. Professionals in this field, referred to as neurophysiologists, investigate methods to deal with the various diseases and conditions that negatively affect the nervous system.

Neurophysiology medical practitioners have their focus on the functional nature of the nervous system. They diagnose and treat patients undergoing neurological disorders such as stroke, dementia or epilepsy. The medical term neurophysiology was derived from a Greek word ‘neuron’ which translates to nerve and the term ‘physis’ which is nature or origin.

The major basic tool used by neurophysiologists in diagnosis is knowledge derived from electrophysiology. Electrophysiology is a brain science that is concerned with electric recordings and the measurement of the flow of ions in biological tissues. Other major fields that are concerned with neurophysiology include the following: cognitive science, molecular and cellular biology, neurobiology, functional neuromorphology, clinical neurophysiology and neuroanatomy.

Neurophysiologists diagnose all the functions of the central and peripheral nervous system including activities from the brain membranes and cells to other systems.  Patients with susceptible traces of neurological disorder or those with a definite diagnosis of a disease that affects the peripheral in most cases require an electrical test. This type of electrical test referred to as electromyography monitors and assesses the activities related to the functional nature of the nerves or muscles.

Professionals in neurophysiology are frequently assigned to the intensive care and in operating theaters where they are more efficient in conducting electromyography tests. However, neurophysiologists can attend to patients admitted to either the inpatient or outpatient departments depending on the medical condition of the patient. Nerve conduction tests carried out through electromyography determines the diagnosis of the following diseases and disorders: peripheral neuropathies, motor neuron disease, diseases that affect the muscles, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome and congenital myasthenic syndromes.

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