Isoniazid is a drug primarily used in the treatment of tuberculosis. Isoniazid is usually employed alongside other drugs in the treatment of this condition. Isoniazid works by inhibiting the synthesis of mycolic acid, a necessary component of the cell wall of the bacteria that causes TB. Isoniazid can be administered orally, intramuscularly or intravenously.
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Isoniazid is a drug currently only used to combat and prevent tuberculosis. Specifically, the drug targets bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This bacterium has a cell wall composed of a substance called mycolic acid. What isoniazid does is that it inhibits the formation of this mycolic acid, thereby disrupting the integrity of the cell wall of bacteria _ leading to its death.
Isoniazid is used in a number of ways, depending on the severity and nature of the tuberculosis infection. It may, for example, be given orally or, alternatively, the drug can be administered intramuscularly or intravenously. The drug is usually administered over several months, usually 6 months, as this is the typical length of duration of the TB infection, while also ensuring the patient is entirely clear.
It"s worth noting that the following doses are not fixed and, instead, depend on the nature of the complaint, its severity, and whether the patient has any complicating factors such as disease or co-administration of other interacting drugs. However, the following values are considered the typical dose for isoniazid all else being equal.
- Active TB Infection Adult Dose: 5mg/kg IM or orally once daily _ up to a maximum of 300mg. 15mg/kg IM or orally two to three times per week _ up to a maximum of 900mg.
- Latent Infection Adult Dose: 10-20mg/kg/day to be taken orally. Maximum permissible dose is 300mg.
- Prophylaxis of TB Infection Adult Dose: 300mg to be taken orally once daily, or 900mg orally 2-3 times weekly.
Isoniazid Side Effects
Isoniazid is associated with potentially fatal liver toxicity, and this risk will be monitored over the course of treatment. The side-effect profile of the drug is somewhat substantial, with some of the most common and severe symptoms listed below. If you do, however, experience any unusual symptoms while taking isoniazid, you are advised to discontinue the medicine and seek professional advice. Common side-effects include:
- Stomach upset
Consult your healthcare provider should you experience any of the following symptoms:
- Vision change
- Yellowing skin/eyes
You should avoid alcohol while taking Isoniazid, as it may increase the risk of liver toxicity. Patients are also advised that food decreases the level of the drug in your body, meaning that it should be taken on an empty stomach if possible. You should inform your doctor if you are taking supplements or herbal remedies, as these may interact with isoniazid. Drugs that interact with isoniazid include: