Melanoma is the other name of skin cancer, which occurs mostly in Caucasians living in northwestern and northern regions of Europe. These are sunny climatic regions. The ultraviolet radiations are absorbed by the skin cell DNA, leading to its damage. The two adjacent pyrimidine bases join and form the CPD, which can be cytosine-cytosine, thymine-thymine or cytosine-thymine dimers. A person is likely to suffer from Melanoma if they live in countries like Australia and New Zealand or above geographic belt and is using Tanning bed well before 30 years of age. Tanning beds are considered to be carcinogenic and a big cause of Melanoma. The dark pigment or the melanin is responsible for the change in color of the kind and is formed by melanocytes. Melanoma can be in any part of the body that has melanocytes. In the early stages Melanoma is small and thin, and the tumor is removed fully, the patients have a maximum chance of surviving. Five-year Survival rates in the US suggests 91% chance of success 75%* percent of deaths due to skin cancer is due to Melanoma though it is the rarest form of Skin Cancer.
Melanoma occurs mostly in the legs of women and back in men. During early stages, Melanoma leads to change color of existing moles. New lumps are seen in any part of the skin in case of Nodular melanoma, the most deadly form of this disease. In later stages, the moles might itch, ulcerate or even bleed.
Some paraneoplastic symptoms are found due to metastasis Melanoma. The patients might suffer from loss of appetite, vomiting, fatigue, and nausea. Brain metastasis is most common. However, this can spread to bones, lymph nodes, abdomen and liver as well.
Scientists and doctors have cited two main causes of melanoma.
Melanoma is usually diagnosed through visual diagnosis or ABCDE and EFG.
The treatment is being carried out differently in different stages. Various treatment methods involve surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy as well as immunotherapy. The clinical diagnosis is being confirmed through a skin biopsy. On the confirmation, the doctor will refer to any of the above treatments depending upon the stage of the melanoma.
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