Diabetes insipidus Treatment, Drugs, Causes, Symptoms, and Diagnosis

Most people confuse diabetes insipidus with common diabetes that is caused by blood sugar. However, diabetes insipidus occurs when the body fails to manage body fluids. The health problem is characterized by excretion of large amounts of dilute urine accompanied by excessive thirst. There are different types of diabetes insipidus, but the most common is central diabetes insipidus.


Diabetes insipidus Drugs

  • Hydrochlorothiazide
  • Dextrose
  • Desmopressin
  • Vasopressin


Diabetes insipidus Symptoms

Depending on age, severity of the condition and its type, diabetes insipidus symptoms may vary from one patient to the other. It is recommended you visit a doctor who will carry out some tests to determine if you are suffering from any type of diabetes insipidus. The type of medication you get may also lead to some unfavorable signs and symptoms. For patients suffering from diabetes insipidus, some of the common symptoms include:

  • Intense thirst
  • Muscle pains
  • Irritability
  • Polyuria (urinating frequently)
  • Severe weakness
  • Lethargy

Since these are not the only known symptoms of diabetes insipidus, it is recommended you report any other troublesome symptom.


Diabetes insipidus Causes

Diabetes insipidus can be caused by various factors depending on your age, gender, and genetics. While some factors may not cause one type of diabetes insipidus, the same factor may cause another type of diabetes insipidus. There are four types of diabetes insipidus that are caused by different factors.

  • Central diabetes insipidus is caused by damaged pituitary gland mostly due to illness such as meningitis, tumors, inflammation, surgery or head injury. It can also be as an inherited genetic disorder, mostly in children.
  • Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus occurs when there is a problem in the kidney tubules.
  • Gestational diabetes insipidus occurs only during pregnancy when ADH is destroyed by an enzyme made by the placenta.
  • Dipsogenic diabetes insipidus is caused by excess intake of water. This may be caused by a mental illness or defect of the hypothalamus.


Diabetes insipidus Diagnosis

It can be daunting to diagnose diabetes insipidus through the signs and symptoms since they are similar with those of related illnesses. To get reliable results, you need the help of an experienced and qualified medical practitioner. One of the common symptoms of diabetes insipidus is the constant need for the washrooms and thirst. In most cases, your health care provider will do a series of blood tests that usually takes several hours. You will be directed to go the whole day without drinking water. The doctor will also measure the level of sodium in your urine and blood. An ADH substitute may be given to determine if the kidneys will respond by concentrating the urine. These tests will aid in a diagnosis of diabetes insipidus.


Diabetes insipidus Treatment

To treat diabetes insipidus, the doctor must be certain by carrying out some diagnostic tests. Treatment is effective if your medical practitioner first determines the type of the diabetes insipidus. The doctor will direct you to take plenty of fluids that will help to replace the constant water loss. In the case of diabetes insipidus, then medication is recommended. Vasopressin and desmopressin are the most commonly used medications to treat central diabetes insipidus. These medications come as a nasal spray, but there are other combinations that can help the medication to work better. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is caused by a certain drug and treatment can be achieved by stopping the medication.