COPD stands for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This can be destructive and is marked by shortening of breathing, cough, sputum formation often characterized by chronic poor airflow. The main cause is tobacco smoking, genetic reasons, occupational environment, air pollution and exacerbation. The sputum color can change from clear to green or yellow. The patient might suffer from cough for more than three months, a year or more than three years. Around the globe COPD affects more than 329 million people and this is around 5% of the total population.

Copd Symptoms

The most important symptom of COPD is the sputum production. Prolonged cough for more than two years is another important symptom. Shortened breathing and the wheezy sound of breathing, noted through the stethoscope is another indication for COPD.

People suffering from COPD can suffer from common cold for a long period of time. Advanced COPD is marked by high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, depression and anxiety disorder. Patients suffering from COPD are often sited complaining about problems in breathing.

  • Discolored sputum production
  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest tightness
  • Wheezing
  • Excess mucus
  • Common cold symptoms
  • High blood pressure
  • Depression
  • Anxiety disorder

Copd Causes

The most important cause of COPD is tobacco smoking. Other reasons can be air pollution, smoke from indoor heating and person genetic reasons. Environmental pollutant and improper medications can be the reasons for worsening of COPD. Infection is one of the biggest causes of COPD. More than 50 to 75%* of cases are due to infection. 25% are due to bacteria and 25% is due to viruses. Another 25% happens due to both of these infections.

  • Infection
  • Smoking
  • Genetics
  • Air pollution
  • Indoor heating smoke

Worsening causes of COPD

  • Improper medications
  • Environmental pollutant

Copd Diagnosis

The diagnosis is required for a patient whose age is in between 35 and 40 and experience breathing problems, sputum production, chronic cough and prolonged winter cold.

  • Spirometry is used to confirm COPD. Spirometry measures the amount of air obstruction in breathing and is conducted with the help of bronchodilator.
  • FEV and FVC also play an important role during diagnosis. If the FEV % is found to be over 80%, then the severity level is considered to be mild. If the FEV is in between 50 and 79 then the severity is mild, in case of 30-49, the severity level is severe and less than that is marked as more severe.

Copd Treatment

COPD can be treated through a variety of methods including advisement from your physician and simple self-care.

Self-care treatment for COPD

  • Avoid or quit smoking
  • Avoid places of air pollution

Medication treatment for COPD

  • Bronchodilators
  • Combination inhalers
  • Inhaled steroids
  • Oral steroids
  • Antibiotics
  • Theophylline
  • Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors

Lung therapy treatment for COPD

  • Oxygen therapy
  • Pulmonary rehabilitation program
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    Surgery treatments for COPD

    • Lung transplant for severe cases of COPD