Attention deficit disorder is a common childhood disorder that can continue through adolescence and adulthood. There are three subtypes of Attention-deficit disorder, and these are predominantly hyperactive-impulsive, predominantly inattentive, and combined hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive. Attention deficit disorder normally occurs to people with learning difficulties but can occur in people of any intellectual ability.
- methylphenidate (long acting)
- amphetamine (extended release)
- methylphenidate (long acting)
- methylphenidate (extended release)
There are key behaviors of attention deficit disorder are hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity. Individuals can be hyperactive, inattentive, or impulsive, but for individuals with attention deficit disorder, these behaviors occur more often and are more severe.
Individuals with inattention may:
- Have difficulty focusing on one thing
- Forget things, be easily distracted and miss details
Individuals with hyperactivity may:
- Have trouble sitting still
- Talk nonstop
- Have trouble doing quiet activities
- Be constantly in motion
Individuals with impulsivity may:
- Often interrupt other people’s activities or conversations
- Be very impatient
- Have difficulty in waiting for their turn in games or for something they want
It is not confirmed what causes attention deficit disorder though many studies show that genes play a major role. Researches have also come up with other possibilities that may cause attention deficit disorder such as environmental factors and studying how nutrition, brain injuries, and social environment.
- Genes – attention deficit disorder normally runs in the family.
- Environmental factors – there is a potential link between alcohol use and cigarette smoking during pregnancy and attention deficit disorder in children.
- Brain injuries – individuals who have suffered brain injury may show similar behaviors to those with attention deficit disorder.
- Food additives – there is a possible link between using certain food additives such as preservatives and artificial colors and an increase in activity. Research is ongoing to know more on how food additives can cause hyperactivity.
You cannot conduct one test on an individual to determine if they have attention deficit disorder. A healthcare provider gathers information about the individual and his or her environment and behavior. The healthcare provider will first try to rule out other possibilities for the symptoms. For example, there are health conditions, events, and certain conditions that can cause temporary behaviors in an individual that may seem like attention deficit disorder. Individuals with attention deficit disorder also have other conditions or illnesses. Such conditions or illness may include:
- A learning disability
- Oppositional defiant disorder
- Conduct disorder
- Depression and anxiety
- Bipolar disorder
- Tourette syndrome
Attention deficit disorder can also coexist with substance abuse, bed-wetting, sleep disorder or other illnesses or disorders.
The available treatment for attention deficit disorder mostly focuses on reducing their symptoms and improving functioning. The treatments available for attention deficit disorder may include the following:
- Various type pf psychotherapy
- Training or education
- Combination of treatments
Treatment helps in relieving most of the disorder’s symptoms, but there is no cure for attention deficit disorder. Most people with attention deficit disorder can become successful in school and lead productive lives with treatment. Researches are trying to come up with effective interventions and treatment and using new tools like brain imaging. This is helping them to understand better attention deficit disorder and come up with more effective ways that can treat and prevent it.